BMC Public Health Mar 2022In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, people in many countries have shown xenophobia toward China, where the pandemic began. Within China, xenophobia has also been...
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, people in many countries have shown xenophobia toward China, where the pandemic began. Within China, xenophobia has also been observed toward the people of Wuhan, the city where the first cases were identified. The relationship between disease threat and xenophobia is well established, but the reasons for this relationship are unclear. This study investigated the mediation role of perceived protection efficacy and moderation role of support seeking in the relationship between perceived COVID-19 risk and xenophobia within China.
An online survey was administered to a nationally representative sample (N = 1103; 51.7% women; ages 18 to 88) of Chinese adults during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed questionnaires about their perceived COVID-19 risk, perceived protection efficacy in reducing risk, support seeking, and xenophobic attitudes toward people of the Wuhan area.
Regression based analyses showed that the perceived COVID-19 risk positively predicted xenophobia. Low perceived protection efficacy partly mediated the relationship between perceived COVID-19 risk and xenophobic attitudes, and this indirect effect was moderated by support seeking. Specifically, the indirect effect was weaker among individuals who sought more social support.
Under disease threat, xenophobia can appear within a country that otherwise seems culturally homogeneous. This study extends the extant research by identifying a possible psychological mechanism by which individuals' perception of disease threat elicits xenophobia, and by addressing the question of why this response is stronger among some people than others. Increasing the public's perceived efficacy in protecting themselves from infection, and encouraging support seeking, could reduce xenophobic attitudes.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Attitude; COVID-19; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Pandemics; Phobic Disorders; Xenophobia; Young Adult
Fear, xenophobia and collectivism as predictors of well-being during Coronavirus disease 2019: An empirical study from India.The International Journal of Social... Feb 2021The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Biological disasters like this can generate immense prejudice, xenophobia, stigma and...
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Biological disasters like this can generate immense prejudice, xenophobia, stigma and othering, all of which have adverse consequences on health and well-being. In a country as diverse and populous in India, such crisis can trigger communalism and mutual blame. Keeping this in context, this study explored the relationship between well-being and xenophobic attitudes towards Muslims, collectivism and fear of COVID-19 in India.
The study was carried out on 600 non-Islamic Indians (231 males, 366 females and 3 others; mean age: 38.76 years), using convenience sampling. An online survey containing Fear of Coronavirus scale, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale and Collectivism Scale was used. Xenophobia was assessed using two scales: generalized prejudice towards Muslims and specific xenophobic tendencies towards Muslims during COVID-19. The data were analysed using correlational methods and multiple regression.
The findings showed that positively significant relationship exists between well-being and age as well as with collectivism, while an inversely significant relationship between well-being and fear of COVID-19 was found. The results of the multiple regression analysis shows that fear of COVID-19, age, collectivism and generalized xenophobia, in the order of their importance, together contributed to nearly 20% of variance in well-being.
The findings are reflective of the importance of collectivism in enhancing well-being in these times of uncertainty. Xenophobia, one of the common offshoots of pandemics, can also harm the overall well-being. Implications are discussed in the light of India's diverse socio-religious background and global context.
Topics: Adult; Attitude; COVID-19; Empirical Research; Fear; Female; Humans; India; Male; Social Behavior; Xenophobia
Openness and COVID-19 induced xenophobia: The roles of trade and migration in sustainable development.PloS One 2021Along with the plight of the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 come the xenophobic behaviors and hate crimes against people with Asian descent around the globe. The threat of a...
Along with the plight of the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 come the xenophobic behaviors and hate crimes against people with Asian descent around the globe. The threat of a public health emergency catalyzed underlying xenophobic sentiments, manifesting them into racial discrimination of various degrees. With most discriminatory acts reported in liberal societies, this article investigates whether an economy more open to trade and migration can be more susceptible to xenophobia. Using our first-hand survey data of 1767 Chinese respondents residing overseas from 65 different countries during February of 2020, we adopt an instrumental variable strategy to identify the causal effect of openness to trade and migration of their residence country on the likelihood of them receiving discriminatory behaviors during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that greater openness to trade increases the likelihood of reported xenophobic behaviors, while openness to migration decreases it. On the other hand, stronger trade or immigration relationships with China are associated with less reported discrimination. And these effects primarily influence discriminatory behavior in interpersonal spaces, rather than through media outlets. Our findings highlight nuances of the effect of trade relations on the culture of a society.
Topics: COVID-19; China; Female; Humans; Male; SARS-CoV-2; Surveys and Questionnaires; Xenophobia
An outbreak of xenophobia: Perceived discrimination and anxiety in Chinese American college students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.International Journal of Psychology :... Aug 2021Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of xenophobic and racist incidents directed at Chinese Americans have escalated. The present...
Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of xenophobic and racist incidents directed at Chinese Americans have escalated. The present study adds further understanding to potential psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing self-reported questionnaire data from two groups of Chinese students attending a public university in western United States: the group who participated in the study before the outbreak of COVID-19 (Pre-COVID, N = 134), and the group who participated at the beginning (during-COVID, N = 64). The aim of the study was to: (a) compare mean differences in perceived discrimination and anxiety between the two groups, (b) test whether COVID-19 moderated the link between perceived discrimination and anxiety, and (c) examine whether media exposure portraying Chinese individuals negatively mediated relations between COVID-19 and discrimination. Results showed that the During-COVID group reported higher perceived discrimination and anxiety than the Pre-COVID group. The link between perceived discrimination and anxiety was stronger for the During-COVID group. Mediation analyses suggested that negative Chinese media exposure partly accounted for the group difference in perceived discrimination. Results suggest that future studies on the psychosocial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic should consider the role of discrimination in understanding the mental health of Chinese American college students.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Anxiety; Asian Americans; COVID-19; Cross-Sectional Studies; Disease Outbreaks; Female; Humans; Male; Pandemics; Self Report; Students; Surveys and Questionnaires; United States; Universities; Xenophobia; Young Adult
Journal of Vascular and Interventional... Jul 2020
Mitigating Asian American Bias and Xenophobia in Response to the Coronavirus Pandemic: How You Can Be an Upstander.Journal of the American College of... Dec 2020
Xenophobia due to the coronavirus outbreak - A letter to the editor in response to "the socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review".International Journal of Surgery... Jul 2020
Public Health Oct 2020
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First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies.Asian Journal of Psychiatry Jun 2020