Zafirlukast ameliorates Docetaxel-induced activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, mediated by sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in hepatocytes.Bioengineered Dec 2021Docetaxel-associated liver injury has become a serious public health problem, resulting in therapy discontinuation, liver failure, and death. Zafirlukast is a typical...
Docetaxel-associated liver injury has become a serious public health problem, resulting in therapy discontinuation, liver failure, and death. Zafirlukast is a typical leukotriene receptor antagonist used for prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma. In this study, we investigate whether treatment with Zafirlukast could alleviate Docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes. Our results indicate that Zafirlukast mitigated Docetaxel-induced toxicity in LO-2 hepatocytes. Firstly, Zafirlukast reduced the production of 8-hydroxy-2p-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) against Docetaxel. Secondly, Zafirlukast elevated the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Thirdly, Zafirlukast prevented Docetaxel-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased cell viability of LO-2 hepatocytes against Docetaxel. We also found that Zafirlukast ameliorated Docetaxel-induced apoptosis by reducing Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 activity. Mechanistically, our results demonstrate that Zafirlukast inhibited the activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), mediated by SIRT1. Based on these findings, we conclude that the administration of Zafirlukast might have a protective effect against Docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes.
Topics: Animals; Cell Death; Cell Line; Docetaxel; Gene Silencing; Hepatocytes; Humans; Indoles; Inflammasomes; Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial; Mitochondria; NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein; Oxidative Stress; Phenylcarbamates; Sirtuin 1; Sulfonamides
Zafirlukast is a broad-spectrum thiol isomerase inhibitor that inhibits thrombosis without altering bleeding times.British Journal of Pharmacology Feb 2021Multiple members of the thiol isomerase (TI) family of enzymes are present in and released by platelets. Inhibition of these enzymes results in diminished platelet...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Multiple members of the thiol isomerase (TI) family of enzymes are present in and released by platelets. Inhibition of these enzymes results in diminished platelet responses, aggregation, adhesion and thrombus formation. Recently, the therapeutic potential of TI inhibition has been recognised and drug-development technologies were used to identify selective small molecule inhibitors. To date, few pan-TI inhibitors have been characterised and the most studied, bacitracin, is known to be nephrotoxic, which prohibits its systemic therapeutic usage.
We therefore sought to identify novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of these enzymes and test their effects in vivo. A total of 3,641 compounds were screened for inhibitory effects on the redox activity of ERp5, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), ERp57, ERp72 and thioredoxin in an insulin turbidity assay. Of the lead compounds identified, zafirlukast was selected for further investigation.
When applied to platelets, zafirlukast diminished platelet responses in vitro. Zafirlukast was antithrombotic in murine models of thrombosis but did not impair responses in a model of haemostasis. Since TIs are known to modulate adhesion receptor function, we explored the effects of zafirlukast on cell migration. This was inhibited independently of cysteinyl LT receptor expression and was associated with modulation of cell-surface free thiol levels consistent with alterations in redox activity on the cell surface.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
We identify zafirlukast to be a novel, potent, broad-spectrum TI inhibitor, with wide-ranging effects on platelet function, thrombosis and integrin-mediated cell migration. Zafirlukast is antithrombotic but does not cause bleeding.
Topics: Animals; Bleeding Time; Blood Platelets; Indoles; Mice; Phenylcarbamates; Sulfhydryl Compounds; Sulfonamides; Thrombosis
Zafirlukast Induces VHL- and HIF-2α-Dependent Oxidative Cell Death in 786-O Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma Cells.International Journal of Molecular... Mar 2022Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene are the driving force in many forms of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and promote hypoxia-inducible factor...
Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene are the driving force in many forms of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and promote hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent tumor proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Despite the progress that has already been made, ccRCC generally remain resistant to conventional therapies and ccRCC patients suffer from metastasis and acquired resistance, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic options. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonists, like zafirlukast, are administered in bronchial asthma to control eicosanoid signaling. Intriguingly, long-term use of zafirlukast decreases cancer risk and leukotriene receptor antagonists inhibit tumor growth, but the mechanisms still remain unexplored. Therefore, we aim to understand the mechanisms of zafirlukast-mediated cell death in ccRCC cells. We show that zafirlukast induces VHL-dependent and TNFα-independent non-apoptotic and non-necroptotic cell death in ccRCC cells. Cell death triggered by zafirlukast could be rescued with antioxidants and the PARP-1 inhibitor Olaparib, and additionally relies on HIF-2α. Finally, MG-132-mediated proteasome inhibition sensitized VHL wild-type cells to zafirlukast-induced cell death and inhibition of HIF-2α rescued zafirlukast- and MG-132-triggered cell death. Together, these results highlight the importance of VHL, HIF and proteasomal degradation in zafirlukast-induced oxidative cell death with potentially novel therapeutic implications for ccRCC.
Topics: Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Cell Death; Cell Line, Tumor; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; Indoles; Kidney Neoplasms; Oxidative Stress; Phenylcarbamates; Sulfonamides; Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
Zafirlukast, a Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor 1 Antagonist, Reduces the Effect of Advanced Glycation End-Products in Rat Renal Mesangial Cells In Vitro.Medical Science Monitor : International... Nov 2019BACKGROUND Zafirlukast is an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed by the glycation of lipids and...
BACKGROUND Zafirlukast is an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed by the glycation of lipids and proteins in hyperglycemia, including diabetes mellitus. Zafirlukast has not previously been studied in diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of zafirlukast on rat renal mesangial cells cultured with AGEs in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mesangial cells were cultured in AGEs (0, 20, 50, 100 μg/ml), and with AGEs (100 μg/ml) and zafirlukast (2.5 μm, 5 μm, and 100 μm). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by intracellular fluorescence measurement of 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), and detection kits were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, and Western blot was used to measure protein levels. RESULTS In mesangial cells cultured with AGEs, markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and levels of CysLTR1 increased, and these effects were reduced by zafirlukast in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of zafirlukast as a CysLTR1 antagonist protected mesangial cells from the effects of AGE in vitro. CONCLUSIONS Zafirlukast, a CysLTR1 antagonist, reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, markers of oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis induced by AGE in mesangial cells in a dose-dependent way. Future in vivo studies are needed to investigate the potential role for zafirlukast in models of diabetic nephropathy.
Topics: Animals; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental; Diabetic Nephropathies; Glutathione Peroxidase; Glycation End Products, Advanced; Indoles; Inflammation; Malondialdehyde; Mesangial Cells; Oxidative Stress; Phenylcarbamates; Rats; Reactive Oxygen Species; Receptors, Leukotriene; Sulfonamides; Superoxide Dismutase; Tosyl Compounds; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor type 1 (CysLT1R) antagonist zafirlukast protects against TNF-α-induced endothelial inflammation.Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy =... Mar 2019Endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic inflammation has been considered one of the most important mechanisms behind a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Extensive...
Endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic inflammation has been considered one of the most important mechanisms behind a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Extensive efforts have been made in past decades to explore the underlying mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and to develop new therapeutic agents for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Zafirlukast, a selective antagonist of CysLT receptor 1 (CysLT1R), has been licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of asthma. In this study, we found that zafirlukast possesses beneficial protective effects on endothelial cells from TNF-α-induced inflammatory response and injury. Our results indicate that TNF-α treatment induces CysLT1R expression. The addition of zafirlukast to culture media suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of endothelial vascular adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and induction of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Zafirlukast also ameliorated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells induced by TNF-α. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that zafirlukast suppresses MAPK kinase p38 and NF-κB activation to inhibit inflammatory mediators. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of a potential therapeutic strategy for endothelial dysfunction-related diseases and shed light on the possible application of zafirlukast in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.
Topics: Cell Line; Cells, Cultured; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Endothelium, Vascular; Humans; Indoles; Inflammation; Leukotriene Antagonists; Phenylcarbamates; Receptors, Leukotriene; Sulfonamides; Tosyl Compounds; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Zafirlukast Is a Dual Modulator of Human Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ.Frontiers in Pharmacology 2019Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonists (CysLT1RA) are frequently used as add-on medication for the treatment of asthma. Recently, these compounds have shown...
Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonists (CysLT1RA) are frequently used as add-on medication for the treatment of asthma. Recently, these compounds have shown protective effects in cardiovascular diseases. This prompted us to investigate their influence on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) activities, two targets known to play an important role in CVD and the metabolic syndrome. Montelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast inhibited human sEH with IC values of 1.9, 14.1, and 0.8 μM, respectively. In contrast, only montelukast and zafirlukast activated PPARγ in the reporter gene assay with EC values of 1.17 μM (21.9% max. activation) and 2.49 μM (148% max. activation), respectively. PPARα and δ were not affected by any of the compounds. The activation of PPARγ was further investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Analysis of lipid accumulation, mRNA and protein expression of target genes as well as PPARγ phosphorylation revealed that montelukast was not able to induce adipocyte differentiation. In contrast, zafirlukast triggered moderate lipid accumulation compared to rosiglitazone and upregulated PPARγ target genes. In addition, we found that montelukast and zafirlukast display antagonistic activities concerning recruitment of the PPARγ cofactor CBP upon ligand binding suggesting that both compounds act as PPARγ modulators. In addition, zafirlukast impaired the TNFα triggered phosphorylation of PPARγ2 on serine 273. Thus, zafirlukast is a novel dual sEH/PPARγ modulator representing an excellent starting point for the further development of this compound class.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 2022Lung cancer has the highest mortality among cancers worldwide due to its high incidence and lack of the effective cures. We have previously demonstrated that the...
Lung cancer has the highest mortality among cancers worldwide due to its high incidence and lack of the effective cures. We have previously demonstrated that the membrane ion channel TMEM16A is a potential drug target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma and have identified a pocket of inhibitor binding that provides the basis for screening promising new inhibitors. However, conventional drug discovery strategies are lengthy and costly, and the unpredictable side effects lead to a high failure rate in drug development. Therefore, finding new therapeutic directions for already marketed drugs may be a feasible strategy to obtain safe and effective therapeutic drugs. Here, we screened a library of over 1400 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs through virtual screening and activity testing. We identified a drug candidate, Zafirlukast (ZAF), clinically approved for the treatment of asthma, that could inhibit the TMEM16A channel in a concentration-dependent manner. Molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that ZAF can bind to S387/N533/R535 in the nonselective inhibitor binding pocket, thereby blocking the channel pore. Furthermore, we demonstrate ZAF can target TMEM16A channel to inhibit the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma LA795 cells. In vivo experiments showed that ZAF can significantly inhibit lung adenocarcinoma tumor growth in mice. Taken together, we identified ZAF as a novel TMEM16A channel inhibitor with excellent anticancer activity, and as such, it represents a promising candidate for future preclinical and clinical studies.
Topics: Adenocarcinoma of Lung; Animals; Anoctamin-1; Chloride Channels; Indoles; Lung Neoplasms; Mice; Phenylcarbamates; Sulfonamides
Does zafirlukast reduce future risk of asthma exacerbations in adults? Systematic review and meta-analysis.Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 2014The purpose of asthma management is to achieve a total asthma control that involves current control and future risk. It has proven efficacy in reducing asthma... (Review)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
The purpose of asthma management is to achieve a total asthma control that involves current control and future risk. It has proven efficacy in reducing asthma exacerbations, but the effect size of zafirlukast for asthma exacerbations of various severity is not systematically explored.
Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed Central, Web of Science, and Embase, where zafirlukast prevented asthma exacerbations in adults. The primary outcome was asthma exacerbations, the secondary outcomes were asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids and emergency visits, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled.
Twelve trials were identified. As first-line therapy, compared to those having placebo, the patients with chronic asthma receiving zafirlukast experienced statistically lower asthma exacerbations (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = [0.45, 1.00]), but it was not found that zafirlukast was superior to placebo in asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = [0.45, 1.29]). Furthermore, zafirlukast was inferior to ICs in asthma exacerbations (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = [1.35, 3.30]) and requiring systemic corticosteroids (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = [1.82, 7.59]). As add-on therapy, zafirlukast was not superior to placebo in asthma exacerbations (OR =0.99, 95% CI = [0.54, 1.81] and requiring emergency visits (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = [0.18, 2.99]). Intriguingly, there was not a significant difference in asthma exacerbations between zafirlukast and ICs (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [0.53, 2.34]).
Our study suggests that zafirlukast, as the first-line therapy, significantly reduces mild to moderate but not severe asthma exacerbations. In the add-on regimen, zafirlukast could not reduce asthma exacerbations, which would perhaps result from small sample size and needs to be further studied.
CysLT1 receptor antagonists pranlukast and zafirlukast inhibit LRRC8-mediated volume regulated anion channels independently of the receptor.American Journal of Physiology. Cell... Oct 2019Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) encoded by the leucine-rich repeat containing 8 () gene family play critical roles in myriad cellular processes and might...
Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) encoded by the leucine-rich repeat containing 8 () gene family play critical roles in myriad cellular processes and might represent druggable targets. The dearth of pharmacological compounds available for studying VRAC physiology led us to perform a high-throughput screen of 1,184 of US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for novel VRAC modulators. We discovered the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) antagonist, pranlukast, as a novel inhibitor of endogenous VRAC expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Pranlukast inhibits VRAC voltage-independently, reversibly, and dose-dependently with a maximal efficacy of only ~50%. The CysLT1R pathway has been implicated in activation of VRAC in other cell types, prompting us to test whether pranlukast requires the CysLT1R for inhibition of VRAC. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that mRNA is virtually undetectable in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, the CysLT1R agonist leukotriene D4 had no effect on VRAC activity and failed to stimulate G-coupled receptor signaling. Heterologous expression of the CysLT1R reconstituted LTD4-CysLT1R- G-calcium signaling in HEK293 cells but had no effect on VRAC inhibition by pranlukast. Finally, we show the CysLT1R antagonist zafirlukast inhibits VRAC with an IC of ~17 µM and does so with full efficacy. Our data suggest that both pranlukast and zafirlukast are likely direct channel inhibitors that work independently of the CysLT1R. This study provides clarifying insights into the putative role of leukotriene signaling in modulation of VRAC and identifies two new chemical scaffolds that can be used for development of more potent and specific VRAC inhibitors.
Topics: Anions; Cell Size; Chromones; Epithelial Cells; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Indoles; Leukotriene Antagonists; Leukotriene D4; Membrane Proteins; Phenylcarbamates; Receptors, Leukotriene; Signal Transduction; Sulfonamides; Tosyl Compounds